Application Note 098
Application Note 097Compositional imaging of heterogeneous materials with AFM is one of invaluable applications of this method in academy and industry. Visualization of specific structures and probing of local properties (mechanical, electric, thermal, spectroscopic, etc.) are employed for AFM compositional imaging.
Application Note 096Contact mode, introduced 30 years ago, is the pioneering AFM technique that is still a valuable partner for other methods. Local mechanical studies in contact mode are demonstrated on polymer blends. Mapping of electrostatic force response in contact mode helps to characterize the electrically-active materials
Application Note 095A set of oscillatory resonance AFM modes is expanded with frequency modulation mode and frequency imaging in amplitude modulation mode. Frequency modulation mode provides a superior capability in imaging at broad force range and enhances studies at low probe-sample forces.
Application Note 094AFM recognition of the individual components in heterogeneous polymer materials is usually based on their specific morphology and differences of local mechanical and electric properties. Nowadays a deficit of local chemical or spectral information in AFM can be overcome by combining it with confocal aman scattering microscopy.
Application Note 093Development of advanced lithium batteries currently represents a very rapidly growing field of science and technology. Lithium batteries are interesting as a power source in numerous portable devices such as notebook computers, cellular phones and camcorders, in electrical vehicles, in military and aerospace applications.
Application Note 092Raman microscopy is a widely used technique in pharmaceutical industry. It allows identifying and rapidly characterizing chemical compounds, functional groups, molecular conformers, and authenticating various drugs.
Application Note 091The Sun is an abundant, easily accessible power source that is currently underutilized, will possibly become the no-alternative choice for electrical power of humankind. It is believed that the most promising way to convert solar power is by the photoelectric method used in solar cells (SCs).
Application Note 090Quantitative nanomechanical measurements of polyme r samples in HybriD mode sho wed that the local elastic moduli c orrelate well to their macroscopic values. Maps of elas tic modulus w ere successfully applied for compositional mapping of immiscible polymer blends.
Application Note 089Comprehensive materials characterization relies on studies of samples by complementary techniques. A need for chemical recognition of compounds at the microscopic scale led to the development of IR and Raman microscopes.
Application Note 088An operation of AFM microscope in a temperature-stable cabinet facilitates high-resolution studies and makes molecular-scale imaging of different materials a routine procedure. The imaging at the atomic and molecular scale has been achieved on a number of samples not only in contact mode but also in the oscillatory resonant (Amplitude Modulation) and non-resonant (HybriD) modes.
Application Note 087Enhanced visualization of nanoscale structures - one of remarkable features of the HybriD Mode. High-resolution mapping of local adhesion and stiffness in the HybriD Mode expands AFM compositional mapping of heterogeneous materials and transforms it into quantitative analysis of local mechanical properties.
Application Note 086
Application Note 085
Application Note 084Enhanced visualization of nanoscale structures - one of remarkable features of the HybriD Mode. High-resolution mapping of local adhesion and stiffness in the HybriD Mode expands AFM compositional mapping of heterogeneous materials and transforms it into quantitative analysis of local mechanical properties.
Application Note 083Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is routinely applied for compositional mapping of heterogeneous polymer materials. Recognition of the individual components in these materials is usually based on their specific morphology and differences of local mechanical and electric properties.
Application Note 082Sensitive measurements of local electrical properties, with a few nanometers spatial resolution, were realized in practice through phase modulation detection of the electrostatic force gradient. The validity of this approach is demonstrated on several different sample types: self-assemblies of fluoroalkanes, polymers, metals, and semiconductors.
Application Note 081
Vacuum allows raising the Q-factor of cantilever oscillations, which, in its turn, substantially raises the sensitivity o light magnetic forces measurements between the probe and the sample.
This short review describes the possibilities of imaging of biological materials using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid environment. Atomic force microscopy can give new insight on biological matter, because it can work in environment close to native for the living cells, bacteria and viruses.