There is a wide range of liquid cells that provide various working modes in liquid and gas environment, they allow carrying out investigations in liquid and gas environment, in flow, with the sample cooling and heating.
Vacuum allows raising the Q-factor of cantilever oscillations, which, in its turn, substantially raises the sensitivity o light magnetic forces measurements between the probe and the sample.
The advantages of low vacuum system are its simplicity of use and short time of operating mode setting. High and ultra high vacuum systems provide the proper purity of processes.
Electrochemical measurements allow obtaining SPM images of the surface with atomic resolution, carry out deposition and resolution of substances on the sample’s surface with purity control of the probe- electrolyte system.
New electrochemical cell is universal and capable of carrying out AFM and STM electrochemical measuring with heating/cooling the sample in the range
of -10 to + 60°C.
Measuring in the magnetic field allows observing magnetic reversal processes and other effects that depend on the magnetic field. NT-MDT devices allow carrying out measuring in the longitudinal and perpendicular magnetic fields.
The strength of the magnetic field is controlled by the build-in Hall effect sensor.
Atomic-Force Acousticс Microscopy (AFAM) is a unique tool for studying elastic properties of hard and soft materials that can be hardly investigated by alternative regular methods. The obtained AFAM images show the picture of distribution of sample’s surface hardness.
Measurements carried out with heating or cooling of the sample allows studying the changes of sample’s properties with the variations of temperature. There are several capabilities of carrying out the investigations with the varying temperatures in the air and in liquids in NT-MDT equipment.
To measure the hardness of ultra hard materials and investigate the properties of thin films one may use nanodurometer with Berkovich diamond indenter.
The scanning nanosclerometers produced by NT-MDT allow carrying out micro-, nanoindentation and Nanosclerometry with the subsequent scanning, elasticity modulus measuring, surface distribution of mechanic properties mapping simultaneous with relief image mapping.
Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM) is an advanced SPM mode intended for simultaneous obtaining nanoscale thermal and topography images. NT-MDT’s SThM kit is able to visualize temperature and thermal conductivity distribution at the sample surface.
This short review describes the possibilities of imaging of biological materials using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid environment. Atomic force microscopy can give new insight on biological matter, because it can work in environment close to native for the living cells, bacteria and viruses.